A magic square consists of a geometrical array of numbers in a square which when added horizontally, vertically or diagonally yield the same sum. It has great significance not only in geometrical aspects, but also in astrology.
Ancient scriptures of many countries have mentioned the magic square as a symbol of perfect symmetry in all directions. Ancient mystics used these numbers to translate and understand the internal symmetry that is present in every element of nature. The magic square was thought to create harmony and equality in situation of chaos or difficulties, thus it was offered as a cure or solution to problems.
A 3x3 pattern of magic square, known as the 'Lo-Shu' in Chinese, was the base of the Tibetan calendar and astrology. In Lo-Shu the numbers add to 15 in all directions. There can be eight permutations made from the 3x3 pattern of Lo- Shu.
Another base of the magical number is the 'Yantram', mentioned in the classic Indian script 'Srimat Bhagvata'. The yantram consists of an intricate array of numbers that forms a magic square. When it is rotated in a specific pattern, millions of permutations of magic squares can be created.
The sum of the numbers in the magic square, viz., 15, 34, 65, 175, 260, etc., were considered to have magical powers as they were believed to be related to natural powers or gods.